Autism : Types, Etiology and Reduction

By: Aradhana Shukla

Autism, also termed as autism spectrum disorder (ASD) is a complicated state which combined communicational and behavioral problems. Autism is one of the five developmental disorders included under the umbrella of the pervasive developmental disorder. In addition to autism other other disorders in the group are : Asp berger syndrome, Rett disorder, Childhood disintegrative disorder. It all criterion do not meet we put the child under Pervasive Developmental disorder (PDD). Autism can be considered as a disability that needs full time care. It is difficult for the autistic people to express them with words, language and sentences, facial and other body language or gestures. It is also related with learning deficiency but they are found good in other walks of efficiencies like, arts and music.

People with ASD often show restricted, repetitive and stereotyped interact or patterns of behavior. The CDC estimation is 2004 revealed rthat approximately 1 in 59 children have been identified with ASD.

Symptoms of Autism : The symptoms of autism generally appear at the time of 3 years of age when the child reveals same such signs or adivities which are generally not seen in the children of his/her age. These symptoms are :

  • Lack of eye contact
  • Lack of usual interests pertaining to his/her age.
  • Repetition of any work; doing any work with no purpose again and again.
  • Not looking or listening to the other ones.
  • No interested in cuddling
  • Unusual facial, bodily and verbal gestures
  • Problem even when the routine is slightly changed or disturbed

There are four major of autism spectrum disorder.

  • Asperger syndrome : These children are normal in almost walks of life but they are less prone towards social interactions and social problems.
  • Autistic Disorder : It is the basic form of autism and it covers the lack of social interactions like, playing and building peer group relations.
  • Pervasive developmental disorders (PDD) : It is also termed as atypical autism. It reflects delay in social communication.
  • Childhood Disintegrative Disorders : Such children are found normal till 2 years of age then they loose their social skills.

The fifth and most recent edition of Diagnostic and statistical Manual-5 (DSM-5) was released in 2013 and according to DSM-5 there are five-different ASD subtype or specifiers :

  • Intellectual impairment
  • With and/or without accompanying
  • Language impairment
  • Associated with a known medical or genetic condition or environmental factors.
  • Associated with and other neurodevelopmental, mental or behavioral disorders with catatonies.
  • Some one can be diagnosed with one or more specifiers, Not only in India but also in the whole world we may see such cases.

Etiology of Autism : There are not some apparent causes of autism but mostly it appears from brainnial problem that interpret sensory inputs and process of language. It is more commonaly seen in boys as compared to girls. It is free from demographic factors like, family income, educational level or life style but it mostly seen in the children older aged parents (who have delivered their children)

in old age pregnancy. It helps the child to get success in a typical school or work environment.

Moreover, possibility of autism occurs in such children whose mothers have taken drugs during pregnancy, other risk factor that is found more, prevalent is that the diabetic (during pregnancy) mothers have more chances to deliver a autistic child. However, there is no evidence that vaccination causes or cures autism.

It is obvious that without proper diagnosis the treatment of autism is impossible. Therefore, there is a need to observe the children on the basis of some symptoms after that diagnosis can be made. Following are a lot of behaviors that can be used either in question form or as such. They will serve the meaning of diagnosis criteria.

The child with autism may :

  • Wants to live alone, does not prefer the company of others
  • Does not tell the name, becomes deaf in some occasions
  • Gazing, unusual eye contact
  • Not seek comfort even ill or hurt
  • Rare smile on the face
  • Having problem in forming and maintaining peer group relations
  • No exchange of interest
  • No desire to take/want anything
  • No attention seeking, living in the own world
  • No such perception as the adults may have
  • No imitation of adults actions
  • Difficulty in body turning or changing the posture
  • Less interest in play or phone calls
  • Limited sorts of play
  • Unusual fears
  • Delay in language development or linguistically impaired
  • No use of gesture while communicating
  • Reverse pronunciation
  • Echo words or phrases
  • Difficulty in sustaining language
  • Enjoy in rotating subjects and folding the papers
  • Engaged in parts like switches, knots etc
  • Apparent insensitivity for pains
  • Resistance in routine
  • No interest to be cuddled, stiffness while cuddling.
  • Unusual behavior like spinning, hand flapping, head banging or rocking.
  • Extreme distress for no apparent reason.
  • Appear unaware of distress in others
  • Display good many for nursery rhymes, commercial jingles, irrelevant facts.

Treatment of Autism : So far as the matter of the treatment of autism is concerned the treatment devices are comparatively low then other diseases due to law cooperation level of the client, but early identification, diagnosis and care can make big difference in development for child having suffered with autism. There is no single treatment that can alleviate the core symptoms of autism. However, there are therapies and medications that may lay significant and fruitful impact on the suffers but on the other side of the coin they can harm the client if not used properly.

For most families choosing the best therapies as a process of trial and error  with final decision depending on a variety of factors like availability, cost, abilities and challenges. Moreover, interest of the person can also lay its impact.

In general, children with autism can best be served by applying some possible and applicable therapies. Although, so many evidences have been noticed that the level of autism can be minimized by homeopathy and ayurvedic types of treatment yet they cannot serve the main purpose. Therefore, some very common therapies are success and they are as follows :

  • Start as early as possible
  • Should be provided intensively (for multiple hours)
  • Should be research based
  • Are provided by a trained and qualified therapist who can connect with the child and parents.
  • Engage the child in a positive way towards the therapy.
  • Addressing the core symptoms of autism like social skillness severe dysfunction, emotional  regulation verbal and nonverbal regulations, physical challenges play skills, attentional issues, mood issued or focuses.

Speech Therapy : Speech therapy helps the people who begin speaking later than the average age. It also helps higher functioning in children ask and answer the question use appropriate body language and for more advanced learners many things more.

Occupational Therapy : Many occupational therapists help the autistics with wide range of skills and training that allow them to work on sensory challenges, interactive play skills, cooperative integration and many more.

Physical Therapy : It is usually prescribed by the physician. It is usually paid. In beginning it seems irrelevant to the parents but later they understand its importance, physical therapist (Physio therapist) works in a natural environment such as, play ground, gym and engross) the clients in play and many more exercises.

Behavior Therapy : Behavior therapists are usually considered as the “gold standard” of autism. Applied behavior analysis (ABA) and relate therapies are given in the classrooms and they are found necessary linked with other school programs. It helps the child to get success in a typical school or work environment Programs. It help the child to get success in a typical school or work environment.

Cognitive therapy : For some high functioning children with autism, a psychologist with autism experience can help sort out feelings, suggest techniques for handling frustration or otherwise can help a child to cope with the reality of life.               In this way we can say that although there is no prescribed technique of the treatment of autistic children yet continuous proctices of above mentioned techniques can help to minimize the magnitude.

Aradhana Shukla
Former Dean (Arts) and (Psychology Department)
Kumaun University Campus Almora – UK

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